Further Resources

This virtual exhibit presents a variety of archaeological, architectural, documentary, and material culture evidence from the Muhlenberg family—providing a window on the consumption and disposability practices of early Americans. On its own, any one of these types of evidence provides only part of the story. Together, a more complete understanding emerges that allows us to reconstruct a more accurate picture of the past.

For more information on the people and objects discussed in this exhibit, a list of recommended websites and readings is included below.

Chesapeake Archaeology

Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology

Monticello Archaeology          

Mount Vernon Midden Project

Philadelphia Archaeology Forum

The Speaker’s House

Williamsburg Archaeology

 For Further Reading 

Bushman, Richard L. The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Carson, Barbara G. Ambitious Appetites: Dining, Behavior, and Patterns of Consumption in Federal Washington. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects Press, 1990.

De Cunzo, Lu Ann and Bernard L. Herman, eds. Historical Archaeology and the Study of American Culture. Winterthur, Del.: Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1996.

Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life. New York: Anchor Books, 1977.

Hume, Ivor Noël. A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America. 1969; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Larkin, Jack. “From ‘Country Mediocrity’ to ‘Rural Improvement’: Transforming the Slovenly Countryside in Central Massachusetts, 1775–1840.” In Everyday Life in the Early Republic, ed. Catherine E. Hutchins, pp. 175–200. Winterthur, Del.: Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1994.

Minardi, Lisa. Pastors & Patriots: The Muhlenberg Family of Pennsylvania. Collegeville, Pa.: Berman Museum of Art at Ursinus College, 2011.

Norton, Marcy. Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.

Shackel, Paul A. and Barbara J. Little, eds. Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Skerry, Janine E. and Suzanne Findlen Hood. Salt-glazed Stoneware in Early America. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2009.

Spencer-Wood, Suzanne, ed. Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology. New York: Plenum Press, 1987.

Strasser, Susan. Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1999.

Weaver, William Woys. Pennsylvania Dutch Country Cooking. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.

Yentsch, Anne Elizabeth. A Chesapeake family and their slaves: A study in historical archaeology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Yentsch, Anne Elizabeth and Mary C. Beaudry, eds. The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology: Essays in Honor of James Deetz. Boca Raton, Fl.: CRC Press, 1992.

1. Meet the Muhlenbergs  2. Cooking  3. Dining  4. Smoking  5. Drinking  6. Further Resources

Return to Trash in Early America

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